What is Cucumber - Cucumber Tutorial

Cucumber is a popular open-source tool used for Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) testing. It allows developers, testers, and business stakeholders to collaborate and create executable specifications written in a natural language format. Cucumber facilitates effective communication between team members by enabling them to express their requirements, features, and test scenarios in plain English-like syntax.

Introduction to Cucumber

Cucumber was initially developed in Ruby by Aslak Hellesøy and later extended to support various programming languages like Java, JavaScript, and Python. It promotes the practice of BDD, which emphasizes defining application behavior in terms of user actions and system responses. Cucumber scenarios are written using Gherkin, a domain-specific language that uses keywords like "Given," "When," and "Then" to describe the steps of a test scenario.

Example of Using Cucumber with Gherkin Syntax

Let's consider an example of testing a login feature using Cucumber with Gherkin syntax:

Feature: User Login As a registered user I want to log in to my account So that I can access my profile mathematica Copy code Scenario: Successful Login Given I am on the login page When I enter valid credentials And click the login button Then I should be redirected to my profile page

Steps to Use Cucumber for BDD Testing

Follow these steps to use Cucumber for BDD testing:

  1. Install Cucumber: Install the Cucumber framework and its dependencies in your project. Cucumber supports various programming languages, so choose the one that best fits your project.
  2. Define Feature Files: Create feature files with .feature extension to describe the application's behavior using Gherkin syntax.
  3. Implement Step Definitions: Write step definition code in your preferred programming language to map the Gherkin steps to executable code.
  4. Run Cucumber Tests: Execute Cucumber tests from the command line or an integrated development environment (IDE) to run the scenarios defined in the feature files.
  5. Review Test Results: Analyze the test results to identify any failures or issues, and make necessary improvements to the tests and code.

Common Mistakes with Cucumber

  • Writing overly complex or redundant scenarios, making the tests hard to maintain.
  • Not involving all stakeholders, resulting in misunderstood requirements and incorrect test scenarios.
  • Using too many technical details in scenarios, making them difficult for non-technical team members to understand.
  • Skipping the step definition implementation, causing the tests to fail or not produce meaningful results.
  • Not updating or maintaining the feature files as the application evolves, leading to outdated and inaccurate tests.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  1. Q: Is Cucumber only used for web application testing?
    A: No, Cucumber can be used for testing a wide range of applications, including web, mobile, and desktop applications, as well as APIs and services.
  2. Q: Can Cucumber tests be integrated with continuous integration tools?
    A: Yes, Cucumber tests can be easily integrated with popular CI tools like Jenkins or GitLab CI to automate the testing process.
  3. Q: Does Cucumber support data-driven testing?
    A: Yes, Cucumber supports data-driven testing through various techniques like Scenario Outline and data tables in Gherkin syntax.
  4. Q: Can I use Cucumber with Java and Selenium WebDriver?
    A: Yes, Cucumber can be integrated with Java and Selenium WebDriver to perform BDD testing for web applications.
  5. Q: Are there any plugins available to enhance Cucumber test reporting?
    A: Yes, there are several plugins and libraries available that can generate attractive and detailed reports for Cucumber test results, such as Cucumber Reports and ExtentReports.


Cucumber is a powerful tool that promotes BDD testing by facilitating clear communication and collaboration among team members. It allows for the creation of executable specifications written in plain English-like syntax, making it easier for non-technical stakeholders to understand and validate test scenarios. By following best practices and avoiding common mistakes, you can leverage the full potential of Cucumber to create robust and effective automated tests for your applications.