Overview of EJB - Tutorial


Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) is a component architecture provided by Java for developing scalable and distributed enterprise applications. It simplifies the development of server-side business logic by providing a framework that manages the lifecycle, concurrency, security, and transactional aspects of enterprise components. This tutorial will provide an overview of EJB and its key concepts.

EJB Components

EJB defines three types of components:

  1. Session Beans

    Session beans represent business logic and are responsible for executing tasks on behalf of clients. They can be stateful or stateless, depending on whether they maintain conversational state with the client or not. Session beans are used to encapsulate specific business processes and expose their functionality to clients.

    public class MySessionBean {
      // Business methods
  2. Entity Beans

    Entity beans represent persistent data in the application. They map to database tables and provide an object-oriented interface for accessing and manipulating the data. Entity beans can have container-managed persistence (CMP) or bean-managed persistence (BMP), depending on whether the container or the developer manages the interaction with the database.

    public class Customer {
      // Persistent fields and relationships
  3. Message-Driven Beans

    Message-driven beans (MDBs) are used for asynchronous processing in EJB. They listen to messages from a messaging system (e.g., Java Message Service or JMS) and perform tasks based on the received messages. MDBs enable the decoupling of components and support the implementation of message-driven architectures.

    public class MyMessageDrivenBean implements MessageListener {
      // Message handling logic

Key Features and Benefits of EJB

  • EJB provides a declarative programming model, allowing developers to focus on business logic without dealing with low-level infrastructure concerns.
  • It offers automatic transaction management, ensuring the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) properties of business operations.
  • EJB supports distributed computing and enables the deployment of components across multiple servers, improving scalability and fault tolerance.
  • It integrates with other Java EE technologies, such as Java Persistence API (JPA), Java Message Service (JMS), and Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI).
  • EJB provides security mechanisms, including role-based access control, authentication, and authorization, to protect enterprise applications.
  • It offers advanced concurrency control features, allowing multiple clients to access and modify shared resources safely.

Common Mistakes

  • Not understanding the EJB lifecycle and its associated annotations properly.
  • Overusing EJB in small applications where simpler alternatives could be more suitable.
  • Not optimizing EJB usage for performance, leading to potential bottlenecks.
  • Ignoring transaction management and not handling exceptions appropriately in EJB components.
  • Not considering the deployment and configuration requirements of EJB components in the target application server.


Q1: What is the difference between stateful and stateless session beans?

Stateful session beans maintain conversational state with the client between method invocations, while stateless session beans do not. Stateful beans are suitable for scenarios that require maintaining client-specific data, whereas stateless beans are more efficient and can serve multiple clients concurrently.

Q2: Can EJB components be deployed in cloud environments?

Yes, EJB components can be deployed in cloud environments that support Java EE. Cloud platforms like Java EE-compliant application servers or container orchestration platforms (e.g., Kubernetes) can host EJB components effectively.

Q3: How does EJB handle concurrency control?

EJB provides various concurrency control mechanisms, such as locking, optimistic concurrency control, and pessimistic concurrency control, to ensure data consistency and prevent conflicts in multi-threaded and distributed environments.

Q4: Can EJB components interact with relational databases?

Yes, EJB components can interact with relational databases through the Java Persistence API (JPA). Entity beans can be mapped to database tables, and developers can use JPA annotations to define the mapping and perform database operations.

Q5: Is EJB still relevant in modern Java EE applications?

Yes, EJB remains relevant in modern Java EE applications. It provides powerful features and abstractions for developing enterprise-grade applications, especially in scenarios that require distributed computing, transaction management, and scalability.


Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) is a powerful component architecture for developing scalable and distributed Java enterprise applications. By utilizing session beans, entity beans, and message-driven beans, developers can implement business logic, manage persistent data, and handle asynchronous processing effectively. EJB offers numerous features and benefits, including declarative programming, transaction management, scalability, and integration with other Java EE technologies. By avoiding common mistakes and leveraging the capabilities of EJB, developers can build robust and scalable enterprise applications.